One thing is clear from the farmers’ protest - when a woman farmer talks about the crop, she showers love like she does on her own children. She nurtures the crop and children alike. When men farmers talk, they consider the land as mother. They say that they can’t abandon land just like they can’t abandon mother. The difference between the two perspectives is noteworthy. Why don’t women farmers consider the land, the earth as a mother?Perhaps, in our society mothers belong only to sons. A daughter is a chore, a liability, a gift for another home. A daughter is brought up with the consideration that she would be sent away to her husband’s home one day. How can she, a stranger since birth, call earth her mother? Unmarried women and women who can’t birth children are insulted. She is not someone’s property. She did not produce someone who will ultimately own a property. Our society’s norms are poisonous. In reality, no one can have a dignified life in such a system.Our earth and a woman’s worth are the same. I have named it karti dharti. The way women’s rights and agency are snatched, the word ‘farmer’ is stolen from women too. There is no word for a female farmer. I am protesting too, along with the words, and karti dharti is the name that describes nature's traditions. It is directly opposite to ‘karta dharta’. Neither the earth is a property, nor women. We look at both with the intention to own. We wish to control both, but we don’t want to love. If the earth remains a victim, we will remain victims too.Unnatural seeds, urea and insecticides are the poisons that assault the earth. These are the things used to intimidate and threaten. These things make us sick. These ultimately will end the tradition of farming. What is unfortunate is that our hands are tied too. We are made to cast ourselves and the earth into the system. We have ultimately been threatened by the same system. Earth is screaming:Fareed has observed that even sugar has become poison,Without Beloved, who do I tell about my sorrow. We must rethink - what does the earth wish.
The dictator is frightened by everyone but is terrified of women the most.The FIR filed by Delhi police against 17 year old Greta Thunberg has not only highlighted their myopic vision but has also drawn the world’s attention to the Central Government’s cowardice. On the 1st of February, Indian government tried to squash the journalists and news reporters who were chronicling the death of Navpreet Singh who was shot by Delhi police by suspending their twitter accounts and lodging complaints against them. On 3rd February multiple international celebrities including Greta and Rihana tweeted again in the favour of farmers' protest. The apparently brave and roaring government was panic stricken by mere tweets of two girls. Those who were comfortably inhabiting glass palaces felt the shattering effect of these women’s tweets equivalent to stone pelting.The Dictator shivers at the strong gust of wind, it worries that it will take the face of a storm. In 2019 when Greta Thunberg of Sweden, addressed the U.N.'s Climate Action Summit in New York City and said, “how dare you! You have stolen my dreams and my childhood with your empty words.” The then American president Donald Trump tried to undermine her speech by tweeting “She seems like a very happy young girl looking forward to a bright and wonderful future. So nice to see!” Unlike Narendra Modi who needs an excuse to file a charge, Trump tried to embarrass Greta into shushing her but Greta remained adamant. Today, the dictator who is trying to shush her is different but she continues to remain unaffected.
Nodeep Kaur, from Muktsar in Punjab started working at a bulb factory in Kundli. She soon realised the factory workers were being exploited and therefore started involving herself & voicing her opinions on matters of labour rights. In the recent past, when the protesting farmers made the Kundli-Singhu border their base, she got the factory workers together to join the protesting farmers and strengthen the “Mazdoor Kisan Ekta” narrative. Daughter of a Dalit family, Nodeep started fighting for labour rights against the Kundli Industrial Association of Haryana. As a response to her protests & demands, the Association put together a team of “goons” in the guise of a “response team” and started harassing the workers and Nodeep. The so-called “response team” started threatening & preventing workers from uniting into a protest. At the same time, Nodeep was fired from her job.The workers who went seeking their pay on 2nd of January, faced gunshots from these goons. They tried to report the incident at the Kundli police station, but the cops refused to file a report. On the 12th of January, once again the workers & Nodeep went to ask for their wages. Once again they were met with violence. The goons lathi charged the workers, ripped women’s clothes. Nodeep was badly beaten and the cops forcefully arrested and took her to the Karnal police station. Her medical examination clearly showed she was tortured and beaten at the hands of the goons & the police. She had signs of sexual assault on her private parts.Nodeep has been charged with section 307 and several other allegations. Her bail petition has been denied twice before getting bail for extortion charges on Thursday and hearing for another charge is pending. It is noteworthy that Dalit voices are always crushed by the police & our justice system. Police brutality towards Nodeep and delays from the courts in bail proceedings for her are proof enough that the Dalits continue to face increasing amounts of hostility & injustice. Nodeep’s sister, Rajveer Kaur who is a student in Delhi University, said that our society gets very emotional over the exploitation of the upper castes but the oppression of Dalit or tribal women is ignored.
On January 26, 2021, my friend and I planned to take part in the Tractor March. Being associated with the farmers' movement, we were thrilled to be a part of the historic march. We both live in Delhi, and we decided to take Uber. I picked up my friend on the way to Tikri. As the main roads were blocked that day, Uber navigation showed a tedious route through Delhi villages. We were stopped by Delhi police as the route to Najafgarh road was barricaded. After wandering around nearby villages with a hope to hit the Najafgarh road but being stopped by barricades instead,, we finally gave up around 11am and started walking towards Nangloi, still 10 kilometres ahead. We were crossing the village of Baprola on the Nangloi-Najafgarh road, which was on the route of the tractor march. The march hadn’t reached that village yet. We saw locals gathered on sides of the road eagerly waiting to greet the farmers - with Tirangas hurling in the sky, marigold laden roads and langars (community kitchens). We were approached by a woman named Sangeeta, who expressed her wish to join the protest at Tikri border, but couldn’t because of personal circumstances. She said that she is contributing to the cause by organising a tea-biscuit langar for the tractor march, which was scheduled to pass by her shop in another hour or so. We walked another 3 km and would have passed by 200 policemen, 2000 Delhiites, 20000 ball flowers and then we met another woman. "Modi saved your country, daughter, he put China to sleep, ended corruption, you should go back," she said. "We didn't come this far to back-track." With that we moved on. Nangloi junction was still seven kms away. We somehow managed to take lift from a motorcycle, who dropped us 2 km short of Nangloi junction. The parade was approaching us fast. We saw the early part of the parade that started from Tikri. Oh! The enthusiasm, the passion, the determination. You have to be there to experience this explosive collective energy that filled the atmosphere that day. It felt something similar to the play written by Asghar Wajahat "Whoever did not see Lahore, was not born".Seeing the seemingly endless parade, we reached the Nangloi turn, where at least 5,000 people were present within a radius of 100 meters. In front of us were incoming tractors from Tikri, who had a choice of two routes - a straight road to central Delhi and a right turn to the Nagafgarh Road, the route agreed with Delhi Police. One out of every 50 tractors was heading straight to Delhi. Seeing that one outlier once in a while, I had a strange fear of the outlier becoming the norm. Volunteers of Kisan Morcha were on the ground instructing the tractors to turn right through loudspeakers and at times would rally up in front of the outlier tractors and force them to make a right. Well, the situation escalated quickly when the policemen who were standing idle till on top of buses till then, decided to get on tear gas tankers. Policemen doubled in numbers almost instantly. Meanwhile, we went searching for some food into a narrow lane called the bhutiya gali (ghostly lane). Just as we paid for the delicious idli, a stampede broke out. A foul odor spread, which meant that the police had opened fire with tear gas. It was unclear at the time why the tear gas shells were falling on the right side. After that, every five minutes a tear gas shell was fired, one of them landed on a local’s roof where the whole family was gathered to watch the tractor parade. By now it was half past two and the news of the Nishan Sahib flag being hurled at Red Fort was spreading. An elderly man from Bathinda, who looked very disappointed, said, "This incident will hurt the movement badly. The movement, which has been growing for the last six months, should not be disrupted by a few bad elements."I was equally disappointed but couldn’t access news on phone as the internet in that area was shut down by that time. I had to wait for the right news till I reach back home. On the way back we first took a lift from the tractor who belonged to the Sangrur district in Punjab, same as my native. I asked them that why did they not turn the tractor towards Delhi Outer Ring Road like a few others, and the answer I got was “because we are affiliated with Kisan Jathebandi (farmers union), our cause is to peacefully get the new black farm laws repealed, and our jathebandi leadership has strict instructions to walk on the right path. ”I reached home around 10pm and saw a storm of hashtags like #DelhiPoliceLathBajao on Twitter, saw the Sikhi flag get the Khalistani tag, saw Delhi police injured, saw farmers injured and going missing, saw journalists' cameras smashed, but what was not seen on the internet was the rising revolution in form of an endless tractor and foot march on the Nangloi Najafgarh road that I and millions other saw that day.
I want to tell this heartless government and the godi media that you can block the internet, but you cannot suppress the courage in our hearts. It is our faith in our mission that keeps us united, despite godi media’s best attempts at showcasing us as a movement that is falling apart after our leader cried on national television. I want to thank them for kindling our passions and rejuvenating our spirits by the incessant, inaccurate portrayal of the movement. We all know that the media only showed one side of the story from the events of 26th January. It was a deliberate attempt at diverting attention of the people of this country to one lone incident. It's ironic that the very section fueling communal divisions in this country are the ones telling us we disrespected our flag. What do they know about respect or disrespect? Don't they see the flag is disrespected when a soldier cries at the border and a farmer cries in his fields?The reality of our times is that our jawans are crying at the borders and our kisans are crying in their fields. Our protest is not just against the three farm laws, but also against the godi media, corruption, misinformation and rumours, and the government. We’re on a mission to save farming and farmers from this government, and also to save our daughters. Those in power have never been farmers, they don’t have daughters also. It seems as if the government understands neither the farmers nor the daughters of this country. When a daughter of the country is brutally raped, they talk about it for not more than four days, and don’t even let the investigations be completed. But when a celebrity like Sushant Singh Rajput dies by suicide, they show comments from other ceelbrities like Kangana Ranaut for days and months on end. The conversation around them is never ending. Why are these matters given the media space? The answer is simple, they do it to sidetrack us from the real issues. I am here because my heart hurts & goes out to all farmers, I am a farmer’s daughter. My father started farming when he was fourteen years old and till date does. I am proud of my father. I want to share a few lines from a famous poet.“Apne chehre se jo zahir hai, chupaoon kaise; Teri marzi ke mutabik nazar aaoon kaiseGhar sajaane ki tassavur to baad ki baat hai; Pehle yeh to tai ho ki main iss ghar ko bachaoon kaiseLakh talvaarein aa badhein meri gardan ki taraf; Sir jhukaana nahin seekha to sir jhukaaoon kaise”Loosely translated they mean:“How can I hide what my face reveals; How can I look the way you want to see meWhat will I do decorating the house; When I first need to decide how to save this houseLakhs of swords can hang on my neck; when I haven’t learnt to bow down then how can I bow down”I want to thank you all for listening to me with such patience and attention. The government and the police have been preparing to remove us from our protest sites, because to cut a tree you need to cut its root. If a tree has strong roots, no one can harm it. This is our root, if we move from here, they will not stop at this, they will go to the borders also to remove us from there. We have well understood that they try to divide us based on religion and caste. But that is our internal matter and we will solve it on our own. Firstly and most importantly, we need to fight the godi media. The protests that were being written off have been given new heights by Rakesh Tikat’s tears. It is, therefore, my earnest appeal to all of you, and especially the youth, that we do not indulge in any violent activity that can bring a bad name to our protest. They looking for exactly this, one small misstep from our side and they are waiting to malign the entire movement. With folded hands, I humbly appeal to you all to stay with our elders, do as they guide us and walk with them. This is a people’s protest, this is our country’s protest. Once again, thank you all for hearing me out so patiently.
I came from Uttarakhand 20 days ago with my sister and mother to join this movement. I could not go back after coming here. When my brother told me about these three agricultural laws at the beginning of this movement, I wanted to be a part of it ever since. The protest was going on peacefully till January 26. On January 26, when the people wandered towards Delhi and the entire media changed the face of the protest, there was a sad silence in Ghazipur after the events of the protest march of 26th January. In the evening some people were returning home from Ghazipur when my friend Rajpal Kaur (from Haryana) and I stopped them and asked them to stay in the protest and tried to explain that the protest would be weakened by their departure. But people kept going back for different reasons. And by night the number of the people was greatly reduced.The day of January 27 also passed in the same speculation. Throughout the day, as propaganda against the protest continued across print, television and social media, the people of Ghazipur became more vigilant. Many people guarded the night, and we women also spent the night staying alert & awake. But on the evening of January 28, when Rakesh Tikait, the national spokesperson of the Indian Farmers' Union, spoke of surrender, there was a commotion at the site of the protest. Many saw the movement come to an end. In the midst of this turmoil, we and other women protestors were asked by their family members to return for security reasons. I wanted to stay here and fight with everyone for this movement and against the agricultural laws, but as per the instructions of the people present in the movement (for security reasons) I, my sister, my mother and some other people at around 7.00 pm moved from Ghazipur to Uttarakhand in a trolley. Everyone was silent on the way and the fellow passengers were instructing us to remain silent and not to tell anyone on the way about us being a part of the protest. But when we found out from some acquaintances at the Ghazipur border in the middle of the night that the protest would continue and Rakesh Tikait would not surrender, an old man in the trolley expressed his desire to return to Ghazipur and I also wanted to come back, so we asked the tractor driver on the way to let us board the Delhi bus. The tractor driver was reluctant to let me ride the bus at night. I told them that my mother also agreed to my return. Finally, on the way, the old man and I took the Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation bus coming from Delhi and reached Ghazipur at 2.00 am. I was the only woman here that night. I have been here continuously since that day, and will continue to be, because more women will come here by seeing me and some more by seeing them. In this way our movement will move forward and the number and participation of women in it will also increase.
After the Maha Panchayats in Baghpat, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Shamli and many other places in western Uttar Pradesh, a huge number of farmers are joining the Delhi Kisan Andolan. Some large groups of farmers are all set to join the movement. Along with farmers, the participation of laborers on the Gazipur border is also increasing. By the evening of January 28, the situation remained tense for a few hours due to the notice to remove the protestors from Ghazipur Border after Palwal and the announcement of surrender by Rakesh Tikait, the national spokesperson of Bha-Ki-U(Bharti Kisan Union). However, in the evening after the arrival of Lony’s MLA and some people at the protest site, he declared that he would not back down from the agitation and decided to continue the agitation by a joint committee of farmers' organizations in Ghazipur. Along with this, the media coverage of Tikait's emotional speech reached every house, which re-established the movement.Two major changes occurred in the movement from January 26 to 28. The first is the determination of the peasants (mainly the youth) to keep the protest peaceful and the second is that the movement has emerged as a nationwide movement, contrary to the continuous attempts to label the movement as anti-national by calling it Punjabis’ or Sikhs’.Another change is in the count of women here. There was an average of 750 to 1,000 women as of January 26, there has been a sharp decline in these numbers since January 26. Ravneet Kaur , a second year law student, says that before January 26, there were a large number of women there, who were provided with separate living, toilet and store facilities and lived in tents. Ravneet Kaur helps people as a female volunteer. Ravneet says that on January 18, on the occasion of Women’s Farmers' Day, women from different states of the country came to the Gazipur border to participate. There was a feeling of excitement, enthusiasm and struggle among the women. Some of these women even came with the organizations. But there were also a large number of women who joined a movement for the first time, and most of these first-time women came either in a group with their family or with other women. Regarding the decline in the number of women after January 28, Ravneet said that from January 26 to January 28, women were asked by their families to return due to security reasons. Ravneet believes(admits) that women's participation is important as these farming laws will affect their livelihood. Despite the revival of this movement, women have not yet rejoined it in the same way.According to Ravneet's estimates, there are only five to six women living on the Ghazipur border now and about 100 to 150 women come from villages around Delhi and return home in the evening. On January 26, the women here (and everyone else too) were very excited about their participation in the protest march, but due to confusion some people moved to Delhi instead of the planned route. Ravneet said that there was no decision to go on the Delhi route, but the confusion about the designated route changed the objective of the January 26 tractor parade.Although the number of women is still low, it is expected that in the coming days, not only will their numbers increase, but they will also join the leadership of the movement.
In every aspect of our lives especially the ones which are emotionally important to us, songs play a crucial role. These songs are born in our minds in moments of extreme happiness or sadness. Wedding functions, “teej” festivals, occasions like birth, death, heartbreaks, nothing is complete without songs. So it’s natural to sing against oppression and injustice in the society. Today not lakhs but crores of people are involved in the peasant movement. The joys, sorrows, fears and dreams, the history and the future of these millions of people are all tied to the same demand - reversal of the three black laws. Not surprisingly countless new songs have spawned the trend. Punjab is a land of artists; perhaps more than any of India's other states. In the language and folklore of Punjab, songs beat like heartbeat. Songs for this movement have been written, sung and recorded by every major and minor Punjab artist. Other states are also producing their respective cultural content, but Punjab is at the forefront. These songs have contributed immensely to the movement's propagation. From folk songs to modern ones, you can find all kinds. Songs in favour of the movement have been made & released in every genre, Jugni, Boliyan, Tappe, Dhadi, Rap and Pop. Songs are also a way to express oneself, and you can find all sorts of meanings in these songs, from rebellion, zeal, swag to demand, meditation, spirituality. As per his/her understanding, every singer speaks to the public. Apart from professional musicians, a significant number of poems and songs have been written by the general public. New works are composed by small drama troupes, choirs and young students. At night, there is a beautiful atmosphere of songs and poems around the bonfire or “dhooni”. A significant portion of the peasant movement consists of women farmers, who are increasingly participating in it. What songs are being written and performed in the campaign by women farmers? Are women's songs different from men's songs? While it cannot be said that music has two separate worlds of men and women, however it has some forms of songs are specifically attached to women. A video of a group of women farmers singing "Modi Tu Mar Ja" went viral a couple of days ago. The woman in the lead is beating her breasts and singing.... "Modi you die ... education is sold, rails are sold, banks are sold, Modi go die" Instantly, a BJP spokesman proclaimed it an embarrassment, the opposition also lamented it, and the media tried to make it an issue by picking up the video. They tried to project the protest as inhumane, one that is telling the opponent to die, and that level of politics has stooped low. The search also turned up other videos from various places in which women were singing about the death of Modi. These women are, in fact, mourning Modi. These are ritualised performance genres traditionally enacted by women: Pitt-Siapa and Kirne. The ritual of women to mourn a death is called Siapa. Most cultures have a gendered division of emotional labour that it has to collectively perform to cope up with life and death. In this, women have to bear the primary to sustain an emotionally balanced society. Crying is an essential part of such work. When the society loses a member, an important step in the process of coping with it emotionally is to mourn the loss. There is a significant body of research in the discipline of psychology studying the role of mourning. The demise of the body or death is a truth that human beings have difficulty in accepting and struggle with it all their life. After death, there are two ways of continuing your legacy and keeping your identity alive: progeny and fame. People want to be immortal. Generally, Pitt Siapa mourns the death of the deceased and weeps in their memory. But when the women mourn Modi in and as protest, they stage his symbolic death by targeting the prestige that will potentially perpetuate his legacy. In fact, there is nothing new in it. In the tradition of protest, there is a long history of using the trope of death. Effigy burning, mock funerals with elaborate procession, ravan dahan- there is an entire repertoire of protest genres that is organised around the death trope. A similar socio-symbolic process underlies the ubiquitous slogans of zindabad/murdabad in which people wish death to somebody/some ideology (as in “Death to imperialism”) or wish them a long life (as in “Long live socialism”). Hence in the moral economy of a society, honour and prestige are important factors. The value of the life of a person is assessed by society after their death. Siapa is located as a genre at this significant stage. It gives the women an opportune stage to adjudicate upon the life of the deceased based on their wisdom and as protest perform the act of negative memorialising. When they sing, "Modi sold education, you die Modi, you sold the train, Modi you die", there's simultaneous presence of an accusation and a verdict. In such expression of aggression against a dominant figure, the women are subverting the authority. Through their creative performance, the women mediate a simultaneously hopeful and hopeless relationship between los and history. In a clever reversal they turn the weeping their fate into weeping (the symbolic death of) the ruler. Kirne is another women specific invective genre. These are censure and complaints in the form of a song. In “teri aagi ve mukaan Modiya,Badalan da bhog pai gaya”, the women are announcing the political death of both Modi and his allies, the Badals. This sharp political commentary also carries the folk function of cursing and denunciation. This insult song-poetry genre often overlaps with satire and lampoon and works to directly damage the credibility and reputation of the authoritative figure. It is to be noted that both these genres are sung by those who are weak in the balance of power. These are lodged in the space of powerlessness and betray a stance of weakness. We curse only when we are not in a position to do anything. The powerful never curse. They do not need to curse The state makes laws for them, these laws are implemented by the administration, and the communication media garner support and legitimacy for these day and night. When your own existence and survival are under grave danger, to enact the symbolic death of your opponent is to valiantly fight against your fate. When you are faced with seemingly indomitable power and the entire establishment is busy with glorifying the ruler, then the culturally marginal and gendered genres of invectives and defamation become the songs of dissent and resistance. It is true that no mass movement will succeed merely on the basis of negative emotions and representations alone. Politically mature and experienced movements avoid invectives and put forward optimistic slogans and songs. The success of a movement lies beyond just protesting and resides also in its ability to imagine an alternative. Nonetheless, protest is the first step toward any change. Hence, instead of being quick to dismiss the women specific cultural forms of pitt siyapa and keerne as unsophisticated, crude and politically immature, we must recognise these as important protest genres.
For the first time in my life, I saw January 26 (Republic Day) in Delhi. When I came to take part in the farmers protest, Kisan Mahila Diwas was also celebrated, which was a heartening experience as the protest was going on peacefully and many other important days were also being celebrated. The parade of January 26 was eagerly awaited to be seen up close, it was not known till the night of 25th January whether the ladies were to join the parade or not, so we went to bed without any preparation as there was growing anticipation of the parade returning to Singhu in 72 hours. Then a fellow woman got a call from outside that buses have been brought for the ladies and we were instructed to reach the main stage at eight o'clock. So we hurriedly got ready and walked the long distance from the ‘Rasoi Dhaba’ to the stage, took a lift from a tractor on the way which got stuck in the growing traffic jam, and we started walking again.We made it to the stage at half past ten and we waved goodbye to the passing tractors leaving for the parade by holding a tricolor flag as people do when a political leader passes by their villages. someone as if we were a minister. I felt extremely tired after the long crisp walk, and along with my friend decided not to participate in the parade and rested at Guru Tegh Bahadur Memorial for a while. We took photos of the parade and walked back to the dhaba at about 12 o'clock. While tractors were marching with enthusiasm, it was the pedestrian parade that kept on growing. Hundreds of folks were pouring in and joining the parade even past noon. It was getting difficult to return back to the 'Rasoi Dhaba' because of all the zigzagging we had to do to avoid Sometimes we jumped over the hooks of the trolleys to the left and sometimes to the right, and the 6-7kms walk seemed to take forever.About halfway through, tractor drivers were telling each other that the flag had been hoisted at the Red Fort. I thought that perhaps ‘the farmer flag’ had been hoisted. But when I asked around, I got to know that some other flag had been hoisted, and I got a subtle feeling that the government accomplished its purpose. Now they have defamed the dharna. I was saddened that the dharna was by the farmers, of the farmers, for the rights of the farmers, which was against the black laws, and the idea was to keep it peaceful. It was just like taking a wedding picture where every family member wants to get the best shot of their own and sometimes hide the bride and groom in that process. When we reached the dhaba, the sentiment was mixed: some were feeling hurt and dejected while others celebrated the entry of farmer's into Delhi after two months of sitting at the Delhi borders. There was someone who was distributing jaggery ( which as a tradition in Punjab is distributed after a win or on a happy occasion), I couldn't help but confront that what's so joyful about this news, when the peaceful protest that the farmers built over a period of six months is in jeopardy? Did the hundreds of thousands farmers left the comfort of their homes to sit and sleep in the harsh winter for nothing? At Red Fort, our sons are getting killed, the rest will be sued and won't have access to food, water or warm blankets, take your jaggery away and think about how this will impact our future. Then the man who was distributing the jaggery burst into tears because by waving the flag we let Modi win, who had been saying since then that the dharna was not of farmers but of the Sikhs. The contribution of farmers who from Haryana and other states seems to be diminished by Modi government and Godi media. Their contribution to the struggle is equal. Haryana langars also serve milk, lassi and roti. Khap also have a langar where they politely address us Punjabis with ‘Sat Sri Akal’ and then serve langar. So by hoisting the flag, we have ruined their deeds also. This is what I saw in the parade of January 26. I believe we should have stayed calm and tackled the black laws with a peaceful tractor march. Now we are labeled as ‘Khalistani’ with which the common farmer has nothing to do. The farmer has nothing to do with any kind of 'stan’, he has everything to do with his fields. He feels on top of the world by sitting in his field, however big or small. If we have to succeed, , then we must let the peasant movement remain a peasant movement, and avoid to paint it as a communal one.